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Tattoos | History | Smithsonian Magazine01.12.22

The tattooed right hand of a Chiribaya mummy is displayed at El Algarrobal Museum, near the port of Ilo in southern Peru. The Chiribaya were farmers who lived from A.D. 900 to 1350.

Humans have marked their bodies with tattoos for thousands of years. These permanent designssometimes plain, sometimes elaborate, always personalhave served as amulets, status symbols, declarations of love, signs of religious beliefs, adornments and even forms of punishment. Joann Fletcher, research fellow in the department of archaeology at the University of York in Britain, describes the history of tattoos and their cultural significance to people around the world, from the famous " Iceman," a 5,200-year-old frozen mummy, to todays Maori.

What is the earliest evidence of tattoos?

In terms of tattoos on actual bodies, the earliest known examples were for a long time Egyptian and were present on several female mummies dated to c. 2000 B.C. But following the more recent discovery of the Iceman from the area of the Italian-Austrian border in 1991 and his tattoo patterns, this date has been pushed back a further thousand years when he was carbon-dated at around 5,200 years old.

Can you describe the tattoos on the Iceman and their significance?

Following discussions with my colleague Professor Don Brothwell of the University of York, one of the specialists who examined him, the distribution of the tattooed dots and small crosses on his lower spine and right knee and ankle joints correspond to areas of strain-induced degeneration, with the suggestion that they may have been applied to alleviate joint pain and were therefore essentially therapeutic. This would also explain their somewhat 'random' distribution in areas of the body which would not have been that easy to display had they been applied as a form of status marker.

What is the evidence that ancient Egyptians had tattoos?

There's certainly evidence that women had tattoos on their bodies and limbs from figurines c. 4000-3500 B.C. to occasional female figures represented in tomb scenes c. 1200 B.C. and in figurine form c. 1300 B.C., all with tattoos on their thighs. Also small bronze implements identified as tattooing tools were discovered at the town site of Gurob in northern Egypt and dated to c. 1450 B.C. And then, of course, there are the mummies with tattoos, from the three women already mentioned and dated to c. 2000 B.C. to several later examples of female mummies with these forms of permanent marks found in Greco-Roman burials at Akhmim.

What function did these tattoos serve? Who got them and why?

Because this seemed to be an exclusively female practice in ancient Egypt, mummies found with tattoos were usually dismissed by the (male) excavators who seemed to assume the women were of "dubious status," described in some cases as "dancing girls." The female mummies had nevertheless been buried at Deir el-Bahari (opposite modern Luxor) in an area associated with royal and elite burials, and we know that at least one of the women described as "probably a royal concubine" was actually a high-status priestess named Amunet, as revealed by her funerary inscriptions.

And although it has long been assumed that such tattoos were the mark of prostitutes or were meant to protect the women against sexually transmitted diseases, I personally believe that the tattooing of ancient Egyptian women had a therapeutic role and functioned as a permanent form of amulet during the very difficult time of pregnancy and birth. This is supported by the pattern of distribution, largely around the abdomen, on top of the thighs and the breasts, and would also explain the specific types of designs, in particular the net-like distribution of dots applied over the abdomen. During pregnancy, this specific pattern would expand in a protective fashion in the same way bead nets were placed over wrapped mummies to protect them and "keep everything in." The placing of small figures of the household deity Bes at the tops of their thighs would again suggest the use of tattoos as a means of safeguarding the actual birth, since Bes was the protector of women in labor, and his position at the tops of the thighs a suitable location. This would ultimately explain tattoos as a purely female custom.

Who made the tattoos?

Although we have no explicit written evidence in the case of ancient Egypt, it may well be that the older women of a community would create the tattoos for the younger women, as happened in 19th-century Egypt and happens in some parts of the world today.

What instruments did they use?

It is possible that an implement best described as a sharp point set in a wooden handle, dated to c. 3000 B.C. and discovered by archaeologist W.M.F. Petrie at the site of Abydos may have been used to create tattoos. Petrie also found the aforementioned set of small bronze instruments c. 1450 B.C.resembling wide, flattened needlesat the ancient town site of Gurob. If tied together in a bunch, they would provide repeated patterns of multiple dots.

These instruments are also remarkably similar to much later tattooing implements used in 19th-century Egypt. The English writer William Lane (1801-1876) observed, "the operation is performed with several needles (generally seven) tied together: with these the skin is pricked in a desired pattern: some smoke black (of wood or oil), mixed with milk from the breast of a woman, is then rubbed in.... It is generally performed at the age of about 5 or 6 years, and by gipsy-women.

What did these tattoos look like?

Most examples on mummies are largely dotted patterns of lines and diamond patterns, while figurines sometimes feature more naturalistic images. The tattoos occasionally found in tomb scenes and on small female figurines which form part of cosmetic items also have small figures of the dwarf god Bes on the thigh area.

What were they made of? How many colors were used?

Usually a dark or black pigment such as soot was introduced into the pricked skin. It seems that brighter colors were largely used in other ancient cultures, such as the Inuit who are believed to have used a yellow color along with the more usual darker pigments.

What has surprised you the most about ancient Egyptian tattooing?

That it appears to have been restricted to women during the purely dynastic period, i.e. pre-332 B.C. Also the way in which some of the designs can be seen to be very well placed, once it is accepted they were used as a means of safeguarding women during pregnancy and birth.

Can you describe the tattoos used in other ancient cultures and how they differ?

Among the numerous ancient cultures who appear to have used tattooing as a permanent form of body adornment, the Nubians to the south of Egypt are known to have used tattoos. The mummified remains of women of the indigenous C-group culture found in cemeteries near Kubban c. 2000-15000 B.C. were found to have blue tattoos, which in at least one case featured the same arrangement of dots across the abdomen noted on the aforementioned female mummies from Deir el-Bahari. The ancient Egyptians also represented the male leaders of the Libyan neighbors c. 1300-1100 B.C. with clear, rather geometrical tattoo marks on their arms and legs and portrayed them in Egyptian tomb, temple and palace scenes.

The Scythian Pazyryk of the Altai Mountain region were another ancient culture which employed tattoos. In 1948, the 2,400 year old body of a Scythian male was discovered preserved in ice in Siberia, his limbs and torso covered in ornate tattoos of mythical animals. Then, in 1993, a woman with tattoos, again of mythical creatures on her shoulders, wrists and thumb and of similar date, was found in a tomb in Altai. The practice is also confirmed by the Greek writer Herodotus c. 450 B.C., who stated that amongst the Scythians and Thracians "tattoos were a mark of nobility, and not to have them was testimony of low birth.

Accounts of the ancient Britons likewise suggest they too were tattooed as a mark of high status, and with "divers shapes of beasts" tattooed on their bodies, the Romans named one northern tribe "Picti," literally "the painted people."

Yet amongst the Greeks and Romans, the use of tattoos or "stigmata" as they were then called, seems to have been largely used as a means to mark someone as "belonging" either to a religious sect or to an owner in the case of slaves or even as a punitive measure to mark them as criminals. It is therefore quite intriguing that during Ptolemaic times when a dynasty of Macedonian Greek monarchs ruled Egypt, the pharaoh himself, Ptolemy IV (221-205 B.C.), was said to have been tattooed with ivy leaves to symbolize his devotion to Dionysus, Greek god of wine and the patron deity of the royal house at that time. The fashion was also adopted by Roman soldiers and spread across the Roman Empire until the emergence of Christianity, when tattoos were felt to "disfigure that made in God's image" and so were banned by the Emperor Constantine (A.D. 306-373).

We have also examined tattoos on mummified remains of some of the ancient pre-Columbian cultures of Peru and Chile, which often replicate the same highly ornate images of stylized animals and a wide variety of symbols found in their textile and pottery designs. One stunning female figurine of the Naszca culture has what appears to be a huge tattoo right around her lower torso, stretching across her abdomen and extending down to her genitalia and, presumably, once again alluding to the regions associated with birth. Then on the mummified remains which have survived, the tattoos were noted on torsos, limbs, hands, the fingers and thumbs, and sometimes facial tattooing was practiced.

With extensive facial and body tattooing used among Native Americans, such as the Cree, the mummified bodies of a group of six Greenland Inuit women c. A.D. 1475 also revealed evidence for facial tattooing. Infrared examination revealed that five of the women had been tattooed in a line extending over the eyebrows, along the cheeks and in some cases with a series of lines on the chin. Another tattooed female mummy, dated 1,000 years earlier, was also found on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, her tattoos of dots, lines and hearts confined to the arms and hands.

Evidence for tattooing is also found amongst some of the ancient mummies found in China's Taklamakan Desert c. 1200 B.C., although during the later Han Dynasty (202 B.C.-A.D. 220), it seems that only criminals were tattooed.

Japanese men began adorning their bodies with elaborate tattoos in the late A.D. 3rd century.

The elaborate tattoos of the Polynesian cultures are thought to have developed over millennia, featuring highly elaborate geometric designs, which in many cases can cover the whole body. Following James Cook's British expedition to Tahiti in 1769, the islanders' term "tatatau" or "tattau," meaning to hit or strike, gave the west our modern term "tattoo." The marks then became fashionable among Europeans, particularly so in the case of men such as sailors and coal-miners, with both professions which carried serious risks and presumably explaining the almost amulet-like use of anchors or miner's lamp tattoos on the men's forearms.

What about modern tattoos outside of the western world?

Modern Japanese tattoos are real works of art, with many modern practioners, while the highly skilled tattooists of Samoa continue to create their art as it was carried out in ancient times, prior to the invention of modern tattooing equipment. Various cultures throughout Africa also employ tattoos, including the fine dots on the faces of Berber women in Algeria, the elaborate facial tattoos of Wodabe men in Niger and the small crosses on the inner forearms which mark Egypt's Christian Copts.

What do Maori facial designs represent?

In the Maori culture of New Zealand, the head was considered the most important part of the body, with the face embellished by incredibly elaborate tattoos or moko, which were regarded as marks of high status. Each tattoo design was unique to that individual and since it conveyed specific information about their status, rank, ancestry and abilities, it has accurately been described as a form of id card or passport, a kind of aesthetic bar code for the face. After sharp bone chisels were used to cut the designs into the skin, a soot-based pigment would be tapped into the open wounds, which then healed over to seal in the design. With the tattoos of warriors given at various stages in their lives as a kind of rite of passage, the decorations were regarded as enhancing their features and making them more attractive to the opposite sex.

Although Maori women were also tattooed on their faces, the markings tended to be concentrated around the nose and lips. Although Christian missionaries tried to stop the procedure, the women maintained that tattoos around their mouths and chins prevented the skin becoming wrinkled and kept them young; the practice was apparently continued as recently as the 1970s.

Why do you think so many cultures have marked the human body and did their practices influence one another?

In many cases, it seems to have sprung up independently as a permanent way to place protective or therapeutic symbols upon the body, then as a means of marking people out into appropriate social, political or religious groups, or simply as a form of self-expression or fashion statement.

Yet, as in so many other areas of adornment, there was of course cross-cultural influences, such as those which existed between the Egyptians and Nubians, the Thracians and Greeks and the many cultures encountered by Roman soldiers during the expansion of the Roman Empire in the final centuries B.C. and the first centuries A.D. And, certainly, Polynesian culture is thought to have influenced Maori tattoos.

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Tattoos | History | Smithsonian Magazine

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Professional Tattoo & Piercing Studio Liverpool01.12.22

Professional, friendly and highly talented artists. Will be revisiting.

The service and attention to detail in consultation is second to none. I have my custom design by Alex dragos and Im so excited to start the tattoo! best artists by far can be found here I wont go anywhere else

Ive had two tattoos here and I love them both! Mikey did my second one and even touched up the first one id had done for me as it had started to fade a little. Staff are all really friendly and helpful! Have recommended them to several friends!

I have visited Hazel and her amazing team at the shop that often I have now begun to think I actually live there. I am on to my third piece of work, having already had a back piece, a full sleeve and now a sock! A very welcoming and friendly atmosphere. I continue to think of things I want to have done, just so I can keep coming back for more!! I cannot recommend Design 4 Life any higher. Five star work by five star tattooists. If you want a top notch tattoo this is the ONLY place to go!! Keep up the excellent work guys

Fantastic friendly place, lots of different skilled artists to choose from with amazing pieces of work x

Love this studiobrilliant group of talented artists create a great environment in which to be tattooed. Ive had both sleeves & both feet tattooed by Hazel & have seen the quality of the other artists during a fair few hours in the chaircant recommend this place highly enough!!

Ive had loads of work done by Hazel and shes amazing, its a great studio with great artists, the quality of work is fantastic and its a great atmosphere to get tattooed in. I would recommend them to anyone

Buzzing central studio with a part of the family atmosphere, always a friendly face and helpful advice

Awesome place, friendly welcoming staff,Cant recommend this place more.

Loved it, the people behind the counter are really chilled out and Lee took the time to calm me down before tattooing me. Would definitely recommend to others!

Had my piece done by martin finished off last sat top bloke and great tattooist will be going back to have more done all the staff are great in deffo recommend you go here for your for your tattoos needs more than 5 stars keep up the good work

I highly recommend this place to anybody. Had my first tattoo done there today by Martin. Well pleased & happy with it. Im going back there for another one soon! Dont go anywhere else.

My girlfriend and I came all the way from Canada, and I got my first tattoo done with Alex Dragos, and I couldnt be happier with it. He was very understanding when it came to my budget, and made sure that he stayed within it. The overall experience was great, and I knew that Alex would do an amazing job from the beginning. I would definitely recommend this studio to anyone who is going to Liverpool and looking for professional tattoos and amazing artists. Thanks again guys!

Just had my first sitting with Simon (Bell). Its was fabulous, hes a great artist and his design is amazing. Everyone there was really lovely and helpful. Am definitely going back, not only to have this piece finished, but for any future ink I decide to get! Highly recommended!

Its the only tattoo shop I go to when home in Liverpool, like the honesty- if it wont work they tell you! And always a great job not matter what I ask for!

IHad a cover up yesterday from Simon Mora, amazing work, so pleased.. Everyone is really friendly and helpful would highly recommend!!!

Outstanding studio. Got an amazing tattoo by Simon today. Service is excellent and friendly. Would recommend this studio to anyone. Thanks again Simon.

Got a piercing here last week by Danny and I am really happy with the result! So far so good! All staff are very friendly and professional. Would recomend Design 4 Life to anyone

Was really nervous about getting my first tattoo but Gus really put me at ease. Had an idea of what I wanted but he designed a beautiful tattoo for me-far nicer than the image I had taken in. Would definitely recommend!

Beautiful shop, lovely people and absolutely amazing work. Had a cover-up done and the artist has turned something I hated into a live of art Ill love forever! Would recommend to everyone and Ill see you again soon for the next part of my sleeve!

Got a tattoo what can I say. Friendliest team of tattooists going nothing bad to say about them. Highly recommend them.

Got an amazing tattoo done by Chris today. He came up with a gorgeous design for me and has given me the most beautiful tattoo. Really great process from start to finish.would definitely go back for my next tattoo. Thanks so much Chris!

Came here for my first tattoo and absolutely love it! Mike did it and Im made up with it! Will defiantly be back! Thanks

I got a tattoo done today by Hazel. Everybody there was very friendly and the art produced is truly incredible! My tattoo experience was amazing and I will certainly be going back for my next tattoo! I will definitely be recommending Design 4 Life to my friends and family. Thank you for such a great experience today!

Highly recommend booking in here! Im most of the way through getting a back piece done by Hazel who is amazingly talented cant wait to see the finished result! Wouldnt book anywhere else!

Simon created a wonderful custom piece for me, and everyone made the experience a wonderful time. Odds on Ill be back for more soon enough

I got my tragus pierced there last year and got my tattoo in memory of my dad yesterday. I love it, thank you! The staff couldnt be more helpful and friendly, definitely will be back

Had my sleeve finished on Saturday and I absolutely love it.Next idea I get, Im coming straight back to you guys!

Awesome friendly staff and great place to go for piercings.

Got my second tattoo done today in Design 4 Life again. Wouldnt go anywhere else. Mikey done mine today, looks absolutely brilliant! Cant wait to come back in for my next one.

Another brilliant experience at this studio highly recommend this to anyone looking for some work done. Very clean studio, helpful artists. Also, Allan is the man!!!! Cheers guys..

Great tattoo studio! Really friendly and know what theyre at! Place its clean and very professional!

Design 4 Life is a Superior Tattooing establishment, after years of looking round for the right tattooist, I was saved by Design 4 Life who offered great customer service and exceptional work.

Kate pierced my nose I was really nervous it was over with really quick its healing great and I absolutely love it!! Thanks guys

My tattoo is healing beautifully and I love it, thank you Mike!

Got to be 5/5. Thanks to Gus for making my first tattoo experience brilliant xx

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History of Tattoos: A Complete Timeline – AuthorityTattoo01.12.22

Tattoos are permanent forms of body art that belong to a multitude of different cultures all over the world. Here, we take a closer look at the history of tattoos. Well focus on where they originated from, and how practices have evolved since early times. Well also look at how societal attitudes toward tattoos have changed over the years.

Tattoos date back many thousands of years. In fact, we have firm evidence that tattooing is an ancient art form, after discoveries of tattoos on mummified skin were found. The oldest evidence of human tattoos is believed to be from between3370 BC and 3100 BC.

Otzi the Iceman was discovered in September 1991. His nickname comes from the location he was found in theOtzal Alps. His body has naturally mummified and preserved, making him Europes oldest human mummy.

Otzis body has a total of61 tattoosin various different locations, with the majority of these ink inscriptions located on his legs. Close examination of the markings on the mummy indicate thatsootor fireplace ash were used to create the tattoos.

While Otzi may be evidence of thefirst tattoos knownto mankind, other eras and ages throughout history reveal a long and rich history of tattooing. There is evidence of this from over 49 different locations around the world, where tattooed mummies and remains have been discovered.

Locations where tattooing practices have been recorded on human remains, include: Alaska, Mongolia, Greenland, Egypt, China, Sudan, Russia, and the Philippines. All of these discoveries link to different periods of time throughout ancient history. Some of these date back to 2100 BC.

As the first tattoos date back to ancient civilizations, the reasons behind the newly-seen skin tattoos are fuelled by different theories. These theories reflect the location and the cultures of the civilizations themselves. Lets take a closer look at some of these civilizations and some theories about why they used to tattoo themselves.

Some cemeteries across western China in the province of Xinjiang have revealed a number of mummies with tattooed skin. Some mummies date as far back as2100 BC, while others are considerably younger, dating to around 550 BC. Within ancient Chinese practices, tattooing was considered to bebarbaricand was highly stigmatized.

Ancient Chinese literature refers to folk heroes and bandits as having tattoos. It is also thought to have been fairly common for convicted criminals to be branded with a tattoo on their face. This tattoo was used to warn other members of society that this person could not be trusted.

There have been discoveries of tattooed mummies from ancient Egypt, which suggest that the practice here dates back to at least2000BC. Some theories indicate that the tattoos found on the mummies were for decorative purposes. Research byDaniel Fouquetsuggests that, in ancient Egypt, tattoos may have even been performed as a medical treatment.

His examination of the different scars found on the mummified body of the priestess, Hathor, suggests that the markings could have been a treatment for pelvic peritonitis. Another interesting discovery about tattooing from ancient Egypt is that it appears this practice was only carried out on the skin of women.

This theory is supported by the fact that there is little to no evidence, either physical or artistic, that tattooing was commonly performed on men. This practice changed, however, during the Meroitic period, between 300 BC and 400 CE, when Nubian men received tattoos.

Tattooing has formed a part of Samoan cultural traditions for thousands of years. The history of tattooing in Samoa is a great example of how tattoos can form an integral part of social culture. It is even believed that the modern-day English word tattoo may have originated from the Samoan word for tattoo tatau.

The tradition of giving and receiving tattoos by hand in Samoa has been practiced for more than two thousand years. The techniques and tools used for this traditional practice have hardly changed during this time either. The skill is taught and passed down from father to son.

The tool used to give the tattoos is handmade, fromturtle shell and boars teeth. The process of receiving traditional tattoos takes many weeks to complete. Tattooing ceremonies are generally held to mark a younger chiefs ascension to a leadership role withinsociety.

Once complete, the tattoos represent and celebrate dedication to the culture and great endurance. These tattoos are extremely painful to receive and the procedure comes with a great risk of infection. Unfortunately, those who are unable to endure the pain can be branded with the mark of shame on their skin forever.

Written records provide evidence of tattooing from the 5th century BCE in Greece. Tattoos during this era in Greece and Rome were used mainly on the outcasts of society. Criminals, prisoners of war, and slaves would be branded with their status.

A famousexampleof the use of tattoos by the Ancient Greeks was the Athenians tattooing owls onto the Samians after defeating them. Evidence shows the use of the verb stizein, which means to prick when referring to tattooing in their ancient literature.

Throughout Ancient Rome there is also evidence ofsoldiersas well as arms manufacturers getting tattoos. It is believed that this practice continued right through into the 9th century. Slaves were alsomarkedwith a tattoo in Ancient Roman times to show they had paid their taxes.

Tattoos were not very common or socially acceptable until the mid 20th century. Up until this time, they were reserved for a small population, mainly those in the entertainment industry. Fully tattooed people became a popular attraction in and of themselves.

One of the most famous tattooed people from the 1800s was John OReilly. His elaborate and complete body art made him a popular feature in dime museums and the circus, where his tattoos attracted and amazed the audience.

John OReilly was known as the Tattooed Irishman and he had a variety of intricate tattoos covering his whole body.One of the earliestmentions of OReillys tattoos was in an article from the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

The issue, released on February 22, 1887, highlights his performance at a boxing match. They mention his tattoos are hideous and a reflection of his barbarious practices.

Emma de Burgh was a famous tattooed lady in the entertainment industry in the late 1880s. Sheworked alongsideher husband, and both were inked by the same tattoo artist as John OReilly. De Burgh and her husband also became very popular performing in the sideshow world within Europe.

They appeared in Berlin, Germany in 1891 and continued to amaze the European crowds for some years after. The design of their tattoos had manyreligious connotations, including links to the Last Supper and The Calvary.

Throughout the 20th century, popular styles of tattoo have evolved and changed. To examine the evolution of ink in more detail, weve broken it up into decades. Lets take a closer look at the art form evolution of tattoos in western culture over the last hundred years.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of tattoos were found on circus performers or sailors. Tattoos were used to tell someones personal story, as well as their professions. For example, it was common for a sailor to have an anchor tattoo.

Within thesailing community, tattoos also became a mark of belonging. Young sailors would be tattooed after joining, almost like an initiation ceremony, to welcome them on board.

From here, the traditional art form continued to grow and had somewhat more of a practical purpose. Many of the tattoos were used for identification purposes if sailors fell overboard or drowned.

Seamen would get tattoos from the different ports that they sailed to. The tattoos symbolized the different destinations as well as the length of their journey. Aturtle tattoowould mean that a sailor had crossed the equator and a swallow tattoo symbolized a journey of 5,000 miles.

Throughout the 1920s,cosmetic tattoosbecame very popular among women. Many would get popular makeup trends tattooed on their faces, as makeup was too expensive to buy. Common makeup tattoos included eyebrows and lip liner.

Traditionally designed tattoos were still less common throughout society and were not very socially acceptable. It was still mainly the so-called outcasts, such as circus performers, sailors, and criminals, who sported tattoos. As tattoos were so socially unacceptable, most women would keep their cosmetic tattoos a secret.

Social security numbers appeared in the 1930s and everyone was told to memorize their personal number. Many resorted totattooing their socialsecurity numbers onto their bodies so they would always have access to it.

However, tattoos were still not socially accepted. Those who got a social security number tattoo did so more out of necessity rather than desire. Those with a social security tattoo were not viewed in the same way as people with more decorative and personal tattoos. Tattoos were still only accepted onperformers, sailors, and criminals. Not on upstanding members of society.

The 1930s saw new theories across society, that linked tattoos with repressed sexual desires.Albert Parryreleased a book, arguing that the whole process of getting a tattoo is essentially sexual. With literature like this circulating, it is no surprise that tattoos were taboo throughout this decade.

The 1940s saw the birth of the iconic Sailor Jerry style of tattoo, created by Norman Keith Collins. He added color to tattoos by creating his own pigments and adding them to his tattoo designs. The classic designs of this decade feature bold motifs and plenty of colors.

Thematically, tattoos in the 40s were mostly centered around nautical or military motifs. There was also an increase in patriotic tattoos, due to WW2. The war saw an increase in women to the workplace as well as an increase in women getting tattoos.

This fundamental shift in tattoo design saw tattoo acceptance rise. Increased popularity meant that decorative ink came out of the shadows and was sported far more than in previous decades. Many of the Sailor Jerry style tattoos are classic and timeless, with people still choosing similar designs in the present day.

Throughout the 1950s, tattoos became a reflection of masculinity. While it became trendy, especially among bad boys to have tattoos, there was still a negative social stigma around tattoos. Those with tattoos were more likely to be labeled as criminals or thugs.

Society had shifted backward slightly, and tattoos once again were seen as the mark of the outcast. For those who continued to get inked, the trend of nautical tattoos continued throughout the 50s. The decade also saw an increase in the popularity of chest tattoos.

Tattoo parlors in New Yorkwere blamedfor an increase in hepatitis throughout the 1960s. While this may or may not have been true, it certainly created a negative stigma around the tattoo industry. This meant a lot of people steered clear of getting tattooed throughout this decade.

However, the 60s saw an increase of tattooed idols in the media, with famous musicians like Janis Joplin going under the needle. Celebrities flocked to Lyle Tuttle, who was one of the best and most reputable tattoo artists at the time.

Patriotic tattoos dropped in popularity, thanks to the Vietnam war. The classic skull and crossbones designs become particularly popular, especially among bikers.

The 1970s saw tattoos really becoming more mainstream and popular. No longer were they reserved for the outcasts of society, now regular people wanted to get them too. Peace symbols and messages of peace were particularly popular in this decade.

The 70s also saw a new style, with detailed and intricate designs, gaining popularity. Full sleeve tattoos and bodysuits began emerging on young people engaged in the counterculture.

The decade of rebellion that was the 1980s saw tattoos get bigger and brighter still. Bold black outlines, Celtic knots, and colorful motif designs rose in prominence. The music scene also impacted the flourishing tattoo industry, particularly rock and roll.

Many people would get inked after being inspired by their favorite rock stars tattoos. By the 80s, society was finally on board and tattoos were, at last, socially acceptablefor most people anyway. Because stigmas dropped away, more and more regular people got tattoos.

Just like in the 1980s, celebrities played a big part in the main tattoo trends of the 90s. One of the most iconic and popular tattoo designs of the 90s was Pamela Andersons barbed-wire armband. Other popular designs from this decade include tribal designs, Chinese letters, as well as tattoos of the sun.

Questions about the Wests use of tribal and traditional tattoo designs started being asked across the world. The rise of digital communications enabled global debates about ethics and appropriation.

The beginning of the 21st century saw lower back tattoos increase in popularity. The so-called tramp stamp became one of the most fashionable places for women to get tattoos. Butterfly and Yin-Yang symbols also gained traction.

Celebrities continued to steer tattoo trends of tattoos throughout the noughties. Star tattoos rose in popularity, largely thanks to the singer, Rihanna.

So far, the 2010s have seen trends related to both the design and the placement of tattoos. Small tattoos in unusual places, like the fingers or behind the ears are now very popular. Many people are opting for quirky and creative designs.

One of the most popular designs for a small finger tattoo at the moment is a novelty mustache. Other popular trends include the infinity symbol, feathers, and the ever-popular tribal tattoos.

Not only have social perceptions and popular designs changed over time, so too have the tools and inks used to give tattoos. Prior to modern-day tattoo guns, tattoo tools were made out of a variety of different materials.

The tattoo tools used in Polynesia require two people to make a tattoo. These tools consist of a simple chisel and a hammer. The tattoo artists make a series of little cuts in the skin. The ink is then hammered directly into the skin where the cuts have been made. This method is commonly known as Stick and Poke.

Similar techniques are seen in tribal communities, where the culture of tattoos reflects a right of passage. Ancient Egyptian tattoo needles were thought to be made from bronze. Needles came in different sizes, in order to create both intricate and basic designs.

The first tattoos used homemade inks. These inks were likelymade fromash or soot, mixed with oil or breast milk. Samoan tattoo ink is traditionally made from the candlenut which is left to smolder on a hot fire. Soot is then collected from the burning nut and mixed with sugar and water.

The tattoo guns that are used today came from more humble beginnings in 1891. The first electric tattoo machine was patented by Samuel OReilly. The design was based on amodified versionof the electric pen, created by Thomas Edison. The arrival of the electric tattoo machine saw a steady increase in the popularity of tattoos.

Inks used in the guns were created usinggeological or mineral sources. Black ink was made using iron oxide or carbon, and cinnabar was used to make red. Different shades of orange, red, and yellow were made using different cadmium compounds.

Recent, modern technology has seen a shift away from mineral-based pigments. Organic pigments are now more commonly used. Modern-day inks also contain a variety of fillers, binding agents and preservatives.

Tattoos are an inherent part of some cultures. In the Western world, it has taken time for decorative ink to become socially acceptable. Its really only in the last fifty years that tattoos have become popular and mainstream.

The evidence of tattooing in ancient civilizations is fascinating. Tattoos from these past civilizations tended to have links to medical healing, as opposed to the cosmetic value that they have today. There is still so much waiting to be discovered and found out about tattoos throughout history.

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Ive spent 12,500 tattooing my face and EYEBALLS to turn myself into a human puzzle… – The Scottish Sun01.12.22

A TATTOO fanatic has spent 12,500 inking his face and even his eyeballs in a bid to become a human puzzle.

The extreme body modification artist from Germany, known only by his Instagram handle Black Depression, has also had his teeth crowned in titanium.

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The 28-year-old hopes to transform himself into looking "as inhuman as possible".

His unusual face tattoo features a variety ofpuzzlepieces some filled in with colour and others left blank.

He has also had chunks of his ear cartilage removed, both earlobes and nostrils pierced and stretched, and has inked the whites of his eyeballs with a jet black shade.

Body modification has fascinated me for many years. I can do my individual thing, not the same as what others do," he said.

I can create and change my body as I would like it to be. I dont follow a trend like many other people. Over the years I developed my own trend, which nobody else wears.

I go to different body mod artists around the world, and I also perform some procedures on myself."

He explained that his body modification journey began when he was 20 years old.

His first procedure was to split his tongue, and he then had the visible portion of external ear amputated on both sides.

But he isnt yet fully satisfied with his modified look and is planning on doing even more extreme body modifications in the near future.

Whatever he chooses, hes hoping to avoid the fate of the woman who was recently left in tears by her boyfriends first attempt at using a tattoo gun.

The TikTokuser posted the fail on her social media, captioning the video: ''life is temporary this unfortunately isnt.''

She had requested a cute smiley face, which the boyfriend had promised to deliver.

But the girlfriend was left in tears as she discovered that instead he had tattooed a wonky smiley face with ''RAD'' written on top.

''Mistakes were actually made,'' she revealed in the video.

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Barbed wire tattoos make comeback after being made famous by Pamela Anderson in the 1990s – Chronicle Live01.12.22

The barbed wire tattoo is making a comeback more than 25 years after Pamela Anderson made them famous in the 1990s.

The Baywatch star got the design inked on her arm in 1995 for the movie Barb Wire, which came out the following year.

She was quoted in the LA Times as saying: "The makeup people were going to paint this on my arm every day, but I had a tattoo artist just sketch it on me and I wore it around for a half a day to see how it looked.

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I decided I'd just go ahead and get it done. I love it. I think it's very feminine, for barbed wire."

But while the film was panned critically and nominated for several Golden Raspberry Awards, Anderson's fashionable body art made waves back then and is enjoying a resurgence now.

The Daily Star reports how Instagram is awash with people showing off their barbed wire tattoos, with some taking the look in fresh new directions with their own distinctive take on the trend.

Anderson's barbed wire tattoo snaked around her left bicep, but today's ink fans are experimenting with various shapes on different parts of their bodies.

Pictures have been uploaded to social media of barbed wire tattoos in the shape of love hearts and circles. Some people's belly buttons, for example, are encircled by barbed wire while numerous women have a design under their breasts.

Though Anderson has since had her tattoo removed, other celebrities have embraced the look. Cheryl has a barbed wire design on her upper right thigh and Dua Lipa has ink in the shape of a heart on her left forearm.

The New Rules singer's body art was done by Los Angeles tattoo artist Sean From Texas in 2018.

Some of the earliest known instances of barbed wire tattoos date back to Russian jails during the Stalin era when prisoners in forced labour camps sported the design.

Ink on the forehead often meant an inmate was serving a life sentence while tattoos on other parts of the body represented shorter sentences.

Each barb on the wire could symbolise a different "deed" like a murder or theft or they also sometimes represented the length of their time behind bars in years.

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Men accused of tattooing word ‘nonce’ on sleeping victim’s head in North Northants village to appear in court – Northamptonshire Telegraph01.12.22

Three men are to make their first court appearance this morning after a man was allegedly tattooed with a vile word on the top of his head while he slept.

Labourer Edward Murray, 34, awoke after a drinking session in September 2020 with the word 'nonce' crudely tattooed onto his head. He also had a set of male genitals tattooed underneath the word, and another man's name tattooed on his arm.

The incident is alleged to have happened in Nassington between September 1 and 4, 2020.

Three men have been charged with grievous bodily harm with intent and will make their first appearance at Northampton Magistrates' Court this morning (Monday, December 10).

They are Liam Brooks, 25, of Redmile Walk, Welland, Peterborough; Daniel O'Conner, 33, of Westbrook Park Road, Woodston, Peterborough; and Mark Jordaan, 29, of Eastfields Crescent, Nassington.

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Are Cosmetic Tattoos and Semipermanent Tattoos the Same Thing? All You Need to Know Before Rushing to Make an Appointment – Teen Vogue12.28.21

On the other hand, Lovesick says freckle tattoos have been here for longer than we realize and they will always have a loyal fanbase. Freckle tattoos may be having an explosion now, but they're nothing new, she explains. I first saw them around 2014, and I'm sure people were doing them before then, so I don't think the trend is going anywhere. It may die down in a couple of years, but there will always be people who want them.

Lovesick cautions that, as with any tattooing, freckle tattoos are an investment that should be thought through carefully before undertaking. If you're thinking of having freckles tattooed, don't think about the trend; think about your own beauty standards," she advises. "When performed correctly, freckle tattoos [are supposed to] fade down over two to five years, but they're still a tattoo, so treat them accordingly. If you love freckles and want to be a freckled person, get the tattoo. If you're just excited about the trend, maybe stick to freckle pens.

Dr. Henry tells Teen Vogue that the first risk [so-called semipermanent tattooing carries] is the possibility of permanence, adding that it is very difficult to ensure that any tattoo is semipermanent'' regardless of what pigment is used, which may not even be disclosed to the client. Everyone's skin type is different, and everyone's metabolism of tattoo ink is different, Dr. Henry explains. There is no clear rate of resolution of the tattoos, and you can never be quite sure if they will fully go away.

Since, as Dr. Henry says, there is no guarantee that a tattoo done with any sort of professional needle will completely fade on its own, or at least not as you expect, thats the first thing you need to take into account from the get-go. There are other risks to consider too: Beyond uncertain permanence, other risks include allergic reaction to the ink (which is rare, but can happen); scarring (from the overworking of the tattoo); and infection, if the appropriate aseptic or sterility techniques are not maintained, Dr. Henry says. These are risks that normal tattoos also carry.

When considering an alteration to your physical appearance via a cosmetic procedure, it's always worth consulting an expert or getting a second opinion before making a decision. Ultimately, the choice is yours, but as the experts have said, bear in mind that these changes are not always ones that can be immediately walked back from.

With any tattoo, it is important to make sure it is something that you absolutely want and love," says Dr. Henry. We cannot ensure that it is in fact semipermanent. Do your research because not every tattoo artist is the same. As with physicians, there are different levels of expertise, different levels of transparency, and different levels of experience.

Dr. Henry continues, "I would recommend doing many consultations with your tattoo artist before moving forward. Look at many before-and-after [photos] to see if their aesthetic is reproducible, that you are aligned with their aesthetic, and that you have mutual goals.

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Cultures With A Long History Of Tattooing – WorldAtlas12.28.21

Tattoos seem to be all over people these days, both younger and older. While it may feel like that rainbow on your shoulder is the newest invention you can think of, you are actually connecting with a long history of putting ink to skin when you get a tattoo in the 21st century.

Tattoos marked Roman criminals and slaves, and the ancient Greeks were said to use the markings to allow spies to communicate with each other. Tattoos were also a prominent part of many other cultures and still play an important role in them today.

The English word tattoo comes from the Tahitian word tatau. Tattooing is said to now be so popular in North America that about one in every seven people has at least one tattoo.

How does tattooing work? Today, electric machines have needles that move up and down really quickly, which run at about 50-30,000 vibrations per minute. These needles penetrate your skin by about 1 mm below the surface and deliver pigments that your body treats as a non-toxic element.

Records show the practice of getting ink done can be found in almost every human culture throughout history. Here are some examples to liven up your dinner table conversations and contribute to your growing body of tattoo knowledge.

The Maori tribes of New Zealand tattoo their faces to communicate information about their ancestral tribe, stories of their family, and where they find themselves in their communitys social structure. The Maori tattoo form was brought to New Zealand from Polynesia centuries ago and is sacred to the Maori people.

Ta moko is a Maori face tattoo, and it declined as an art form in the 20th century but recently the practice has seen a revival. More Maori are getting them again, as a way of celebrating their culture.

Maori men can sport a moko on their entire face, and women have them on their chin, and sometimes on their upper lip, nostrils, forehead, and throat. Maori tattoos are said to be one of a kindno two are alike.

Tattoos have a different significance in various cultures, and for the Romans, a tattoo usually represented bad news, not something to be celebrated. This group is said to have used tattoos to brand fugitives with the letter F, and also to mark slaves who were forced to work in mines, and convicts who were made to fight in gladiator shows. These tattoos of shame were made on the face, arm, calf or hand.

Other signs and letters were also used by the Anglo-Saxons for the same types of purposesto mark those who had broken the law or were simply homeless vagabonds. The practice of tattooing people to permanently brand them continued up into the American colonies, where it was used to identify slaves, and those who tried to free or steal property.

What about the ancient Greeks? Tattoos were used in much the same way by this group. The tradition of using tattoos as punishment or to shame is said to have come to Greece from Persia in the 6th century BCE.

Among some ancient peoples, however, tattoos were a positive thing. For people like the Picts, Gauls, and Scythians, tattoos were used in a more positive way and were a mark of pride as they are in Maori culture and other native groups.

Tattoos have also been a prominent part of some Indigenous peoples' cultures in the Americas. Archeology.org tells of how people from the Mississippian culture in the US from around A.D. 1350-1550 tattooed their face to capture the soul of a person they killed in battle and to help their dead relatives travel into the afterlife. Face tattoos were about celebrating everlasting life. Often these detailed images would take the form of a bird, which was related to the Birdman deity who represented the triumph of life over death with the world being born anew each day with the rising of the sun, and the singing of the birds.

Whether as positive images or as negative markers, tattoos have been around all over the world for centuries, if not millennia. Each culture has its own unique tradition, and tattoo art continues to evolve today, bridging the art of the past with the future.

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Tattoo Definition & Meaning – Merriam-Webster12.28.21

1 : a mark, figure, design, or word intentionally fixed or placed on the skin:

a : one that is indelible and created by insertion of pigment under the skin

b : one that is temporarily applied to the skin, resembles a permanent tattoo, and usually lasts for a few days to several weeks

c : one that is composed of scar tissue intentionally created by cutting, abrading, or burning the skin

tattooed; tattooing; tattoos

transitive verb

1 : to mark the skin with (a tattoo) tattooed a flag on his chest

1 : a rapid rhythmic rapping

2a : a call sounded shortly before taps as notice to go to quarters

b : outdoor military exercise given by troops as evening entertainment

tattooed; tattooing; tattoos

transitive verb

1 : to beat or rap rhythmically on : drum on

a : to hit (a pitched ball) very hard An RBI single followed, and then Rougned Odor tattooed the first pitch he saw for a three-run homer. Derrick Goold

b : to get many hits and runs against (a pitcher) The Twins tattooed him for four more in the third Brian Murphy

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Tattoos, clothes, car stickers: Pentagon’s anti-extremism push targets more than just social media – Washington Times12.28.21

The Pentagons new anti-extremism crackdown on troops social media activity is also targeting what the brass considers unacceptable elsewhere in a service members life such as the T-shirts a soldier wears, the bumper stickers plastered on the soldiers car and the tattooed slogans and symbols inked on the soldiers body.

Defense Department guidance released last week offers new definitions for what constitutes active participation by military personnel in a hate group or extremist organization. The most noteworthy updates to the Pentagon policies center on social media, with troops now potentially facing consequences if they share, like or otherwise amplify hateful messages on Facebook, Twitter or elsewhere.

But the internet is just one avenue.

Knowingly displaying paraphernalia, words, or symbols in support of extremist activities or in support of groups or organizations that support extremist activities, such as flags, clothing, tattoos, and bumper stickers, whether on or off a military installation is a violation of the policy, the Pentagon guidance says.

The updated guidelines are sure to be controversial. Some critics have argued the Defense Departments extremism initiative represents a slippery slope,potentially opening the door for conservatives and Christians to be dubbed extreme because of their views on abortion, for example.

The Pentagon has pushed back against those criticisms. Military officials have stressed the anti-extremism effort has nothing to do with politics and is instead aimed at identifying service members who might be willing to take part in violent uprisings, such as the Jan. 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol, in which numerous active-duty troops and veterans participated.

Launching the anti-extremism push was one of Defense Secretary Lloyd Austins first acts after taking office in February, just weeks after the Jan. 6 assault. The Pentagon chief has framed the fight against extremism as a military readiness issue.

We believe only a very few violate this oath by participating in extremist activities, but even the actions of a few can have an outsized impact on unit cohesion, morale and readiness and the physical harm some of these activities can engender can undermine the safety of our people, Mr. Austin said in a memo last week.

The anti-extremism guidance doesnt outright ban membership in a hate group, but instead zeroes in on participation. Simply belonging to a White supremacist organization, for example, wouldnt violate military rules, but wearing a T-shirt with that groups logo would be a violation, as would having a tattoo of its symbol.

Liking and sharing such a groups social media content, attending meetings or handing out written materials also would violate military rules. Under the new policies, commanders bear much of the responsibility for policing their own units and flagging any extremist behavior among the people they lead.

As for what constitutes an extremist ideology, the Pentagon directive lays out six broad categories, many of which appear to apply to the Jan. 6 attack. They include: advocating or engaging in unlawful force or violence to deprive others of their constitutional rights; advocating or engaging in unlawful force or violence to achieve a political or ideological goal; advocating or supporting terrorism; advocating or supporting the overthrow of the government; encouraging military or civilian personnel to violate U.S. laws; and advocating discrimination based on, race, color, religion, and other factors.

In all of 2021, officials said they identified about 100 cases of extremism among active-duty military personnel, up from the low double digits across each of the services in prior years, senior defense officials said last week when rolling out the new guidelines.

Among both active-duty troops and veterans, the number of criminal acts shot up dramatically in 2021 due largely to the Jan. 6 attack, according to data compiled by the University of Marylands National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. From 1990 through 2021, at least 458 individuals with military backgrounds committed a criminal act driven by their political, economic, social or religious goals, the consortium said in a recent study.

At least 118 of those individuals have been charged for their actions on Jan. 6.

In 2020, there were just 40 such offenses, and throughout most of the previous decade there were fewer than 20 per year.

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